Storing Passwords for everyone.

Remembering strong and unique passwords for every website you visit is too hard to do without assistance. Fortunately, there are plenty of free password managers that can help.

Use a password management tool (e.g., KeePass, LastPass, Password Agent) to store all your passwords. When using a password manager, you have one master passphrase that protects all of your other passwords. This leaves you with the ease of having to remember only one

Passwords aren’t a great way to prove—or protect—your identity, but for now, we’re stuck with them. The problem is anybody who cracks or guesses your password can log in to your bank, your social media, your email—any secure site.

User accounts (User IDs and Passwords) are the primary keys to many of our systems and must be managed carefully.

Passwords and other authentication methods like tokens, keys or biometrics are ways that systems verify you are who you claim to be. If someone else uses your credentials, the system will think it is you. That person can do anything you can do on your computer. They can log in as you and do a number of actions including deleting files, sending malicious emails, or browsing inappropriate sites.

Any activity using your account is done in your name and is your responsibility.

Passwords should be protected. Incorporate the following guidelines as a means for protecting passwords:

  • Do not write down passwords (e.g., on Post-It notes)
  • Do not share passwords with anyone (e.g., Global Service Desk or trusted family member). Passwords and other authentication methods (e.g., security token or security questions) is what a system uses to verify that you are who you claim to be.
  • Do not store passwords in clear text (unencrypted) or an easily decrypted form
  • Do not hard-code passwords into login scripts, batch files, or elsewhere on the computer
  • Use different passwords for different accounts, so if someone gets one password they will not get them all. If your account is compromised, it takes less effort to change a single password than it takes to change the password on all of the accounts it was used
  • When setting security verification questions, choose questions for which it is unlikely that an internet search would yield the correct answer

There are some Password managers which can be used examples are: : What is KeePass?
Today you need to remember many passwords. You need a password for the Windows network logon, your e-mail account, your website’s FTP password, online passwords (like website member account), etc. etc. etc. The list is endless. Also, you should use different passwords for each account. Because if you use only one password everywhere and someone gets this password you have a problem… A serious problem. The thief would have access to your e-mail account, website, etc. Unimaginable.

KeePass is a free open source password manager, which helps you to manage your passwords in a secure way. You can put all your passwords in one database, which is locked with one master key or a key file. So you only have to remember one single master password or select the key file to unlock the whole database. The databases are encrypted using the best and most secure encryption algorithms currently known (AES and Twofish).

Is it really free?
Yes, KeePass is really free, and more than that: it is open source (OSI certified). You can have a look at its full source and check whether the encryption algorithms are implemented correctly. : The free LastPass 4.0 has a bold new online interface, and features such as emergency access and automated password updating put it ahead of many of its for-pay competitors.


Free for use on multiple same-type devices. Actionable password strength report. Automated password changing. Multifactor authentication. Enhanced user interface for online password vault. New emergency access password inheritance. New sharing center.


Password Agent is an easy-to-navigate password management program that allows you to store all your passwords, secret notes and data snippets in a single, secure database. Do you have too many passwords to remember? Are pieces of paper that you used to write down your important account information lost? Do you want to find this information quickly? Password Agent keeps track of all your passwords – no problems, no worries. And, it keeps unauthorized users from accessing your private information.


Sounds interesting? Download the free Lite version now and see for yourself.




What is Network?
• A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources (such as printers and CDs), exchange files, or allow electronic communications.
• The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves,
satellites, or infrared light beams.

Different Types of Networks
• Depending upon the geographical area covered

by a network, it is classified as:
– Local Area Network (LAN)
– Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
– Wide Area Network (WAN)
– Personal Area Network (PAN)

Local Area Network (LAN)

A LAN is a network that is used for communicating among computer devices, usually within an office building or home.
• LAN’s enable the sharing of resources such as files or hardware devices that may be needed by multiple users
• Is limited in size, typically spanning a few hundred meters and no more than a mile
• Is fast, with speeds from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps
• Requires little wiring, typically a single cable connecting to each device
• Has lower cost compared to MAN’s or WAN’s

LAN’s can be either wired or wireless. Twisted pair, coax or fibre optic cable can be used in wired LAN’s.
• Every LAN uses a protocol – a set of rules that governs how packets are configured and transmitted.
• Nodes in a LAN are linked together with a certain topology. These topologies include:
– Bus
– Ring
– Star
• LANs are capable of very high transmission rates (100s Mb/s to G b/s).


Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
• A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus.
• A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN, ranging from several blocks of buildings to entire cities.
• A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used
by many individuals and organizations.

• A MAN often acts as a high speed network to allow sharing of regional resources.
• A MAN typically covers an area of between 5 and 50 km diameter.
• Examples of MAN: Telephone company network that provides a high speed DSL to
customers and cable TV network.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

WAN covers a large geographic area such as country, continent or even whole of the world.

• A WAN is two or more LANs connected together. The LANs can be many miles apart.
• To cover great distances, WANs may transmit data over leased high-speed phone lines or
wireless links such as satellites.                                                                                                                   •Multiple LANs can be connected together using devices such as bridges, routers, or
gateways, which enable them to share data.
• The world’s most popular WAN is the Internet.

Personal Area Network (PAN)

• A PAN is a network that is used for communicating among computers and computer
devices (including telephones) in close proximity of around a few meters within a room
• It can be used for communicating between the devices themselves, or for connecting to a larger network such as the internet.
• PAN’s can be wired or wireless                                                                                                                  • A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among
computer devices, including telephones and personal digital assistants, in proximity to an
individual’s body.
• The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a PAN is
typically a few meters.





Here’s how to password protect flash drives

1. Manually Save Files With a Password

As mentioned above, you can’t safely password protect your entire USB stick without using encryption. However, if you shy away from the time consuming encryption process of entire folders and need a really quick way to only protect a few selected files, maybe you can simply save those with a USB password.

Many programs, including Word and Excel, allow you to save files with a password. For example in Word, while the document is open, go to > Tools > Options and switch to the Security tab. Now enter a Password to open, click OK, re-enter the password when asked, and finally save your document and don’t forget the password.

usb password


2. Lock Your Flash Drive with USB Safeguard

Like Rohos Mini Drive, USB Safeguard is a portable app that runs directly from your flash drive and thus does not require Administrator rights on the local computer. It uses on-the-fly AES 256 bit encryption. The free version is limited to drive size of 2GB.

Download the usbsafeguard.exe and copy it to your USB flash drive. Run it from your flash drive and enter a password to lock the drive. To unlock it, run the file again and enter the password. The locking procedure must be repeated every time you want the drive to be locked as the tool will remember its last status, i.e. locked or unlocked. This also means that you can change the password every time you use USB Safeguard.

usb password

3. Protect files without any software

In Windows vista, 7, 8 and later, Microsoft serve a security tool for Windows users name “BitLocker Drive Encryption” to protect any drive, including external, internal, flash drive with a password that makes all of your files in the drive more secure with a password. Once you turn ON BitLocker for a USB drive, you didn’t need to install any third party tool on other windows computer to explore files, as you connect your bitlocker encrypted flash drive to the other windows computer, the computer will automatically prompt a popup and ask to user to input password of USB. To turn ON follow the steps :

  1. Connect the USB flash drive to your computer
  2. Right click the flash drive > Select Turn on BitLocker (If you don’t see this option, simply go to Control panel > BitLocker Drive Encryption > Turn on Encryption for your external flash drive)
  3. Check box: Use the password to unlock this drive, and create a new password
  4. On the next, you get a recovery key which helps you later to recover your password, if you forgotten. Save it
  5. Next and click: Start encrypting


  6. Wait for some time, until it completes. Encryption may takes time according to your USB size & performance.
  7. After complete your flash drive look like below snapshot on other computers (To test, simply plug-in flash drive to another USB socket) :


  8. Open disk > input password > Enjoy!

To Decrypt (remove password) :

  1. Unlock the drive using the password
  2. Right click on it > Select “Manage BitLocker” (or go to Control panel > BitLocker Drive Encryption)
  3. Turn off “BitLocker” for your drive
  4. Decryption may takes time according to your USB data, size & performance



Here is list of freeware software to protect the USB drives:

How to monitor, measure, and manage your broadband consumption

Dealing with a data cap? Tired of getting dinged for busting through it? Learn how to identify the hogs on your network and how to make sure your ISP is delivering everything you’re paying for.

Forget that bass; in the digital world, it’s all about that bandwidth. You’re paying your ISP for a given amount of bandwidth, but it’s up to you to manage how it’s consumed. Whether or not you have a data cap—and even if your data cap is high enough that you never bang into it—simply letting all the devices on your network engage in a battle for supremacy is a recipe for problems.

You could experience poor video streaming, choppy VoIP calls, or debilitating lag in your online gaming sessions. And if you do have a data cap (and yes, they are evil), blowing through it can hit you in the pocketbook, expose you to throttling (where your ISP drastically, if temporarily, reduces your connection speed), or both.

Those are the problems, here are the solutions: We’ll show you how you can keep your ISP honest by measuring your Internet connection speed, so you can make sure you’re getting what you’re paying for; we’ll help you identify any bandwidth hogs on your network, so you can manage their consumption; and we’ll show you how you can tweak your router to deliver the best performance from everything on your home network.


Make sure you’re getting what you paid for

Your home network will most certainly be faster than your Internet connection, but it’s the speed of your Internet connection that will have the biggest impact on your media-streaming experience—at least when you’re streaming media from services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, Spotify, Tidal, and the like. So the first step in your bandwidth audit should be to verify that your ISP is delivering the speed you’re paying for (the vast majority of ISPs offer their services in tiers, charging more for higher speeds.

Results from for my home connection.

The best way to do that is by visiting a third-party website such as Ookla’s or—if you don’t like Flash—the HTML 5-based To get accurate baseline speeds, check from a device that’s connected directly to your broadband gateway (i.e., your DSL or cable modem, not your router), with all other wired and wireless devices disconnected. You might even want to test a couple of times at different hours of the day, since speeds can vary. Additionally, run some tests while other devices are using the Internet to see the differences.

Compare your baseline results to the speeds your ISP has committed to deliver with the plan you’re paying for. If you’re seeing significantly lower speeds, call your provider ask them to check your connection. They might be able to run some diagnostics at their end and offer some suggestions to fix the problem before they send out a tech.

You also want to check the Internet speeds from any device you’re seeing performance issues on. Devices that are hardwired into the network should achieve speeds on par with your baseline if other devices on the network aren’t using much bandwidth. On wireless devices, the speeds can be greatly reduced when further away from the wireless router or if there’s interference from neighboring Wi-Fi networks, other wireless devices, or appliances that can cause interference (such as microwave ovens, which produce tremendous amounts of noise in the 2.4GHz frequency spectrum while operating).

How much bandwidth do you really need?

Keep in mind, the bandwidth your ISP promises to deliver isn’t a per-device ceiling—it’s the total bandwidth available for your Internet connection, so it’s shared among all the devices on your network. If you have a plan offering download speeds of 20Mbps and upload speeds of 1.0Mbps, for instance, and you have four devices connected to the Internet, you could say each device might see a maximum download speed of 5.0Mbps and a maximum upload speed of 0.25Mbps.

In reality, it’s not quite that simple. The manner in which your Internet bandwidth is distributed depends on your router and the demand from each device. With a simple router with factory-default settings, it’s every client device for itself in a mad scramble for bandwidth. Client devices that are sensitive to lag—media streamers, VoIP phones, and online games—can suffer in this scenario because applications that aren’t sensitive to lag—web browsers and email clients, for example—are treated the same as one that are. I’ll show you how you can manage your bandwidth later.

Optimize your network to increase speeds

At first thought, your Internet connection seems to be the bottleneck to the Internet. Your local network might be able to handle up to 1000Mbps of bandwidth, while your Internet-download speeds are likely less than 60Mbps (much less than that if you’re relying on DSL or—shudder—satellite Internet service). You’d think that your network could easily handle it, but sometimes that’s not the case. This is especially true when you have many devices on the network, particularly Wi-Fi devices.

You might not need super-fast speeds for every device or online service, but the quicker any device is served by the router means the more time it has to serve the other devices on the network. Thus, increasing the speeds of just one device could have an impact on the others. The more devices you get faster, the more noticeable the increased performance may be, especially for those sensitive services.

Whenever possible, connect computers and devices to the router or network via an ethernet cable. This helps alleviate the congestion on the airwaves, which is a much more complex and imperfect connection medium than a cable.

For devices that can’t be hardwired, try to utilize router’s 5GHz frequency band as much as possible, as the 2.4GHz band is much more congested and prone to interference. For network clients that can connect only to your 2.4GHz network, check channel usage so you can use the least-crowded channel available. Additionally, ensure you’re using only WPA2 security for your Wi-Fi, as enabling the first-generation WPA (or the even older, insecure WEP) limits wireless speeds.

If your wireless router doesn’t support 5GHz, I suggest upgrading to a dual-band router so you can utilize these faster and higher quality frequencies. Keep in mind, the Wi-Fi devices must also specially support 5GHz, otherwise they’ll still be connecting via 2.4GHz. For computers and devices that can be upgraded to 5GHz Wi-Fi, I suggest doing so. If you have multiple devices without 5GHz, I suggest upgrading the ones with any performance issues first.

Finally, evaluate your Wi-Fi coverage to ensure that your wireless router is placed in the most central spot around where you use the wireless devices most often. If you still regularly have low or poor Wi-Fi signals, consider extending your network.